1. which 省略
  2. 主被動
  3. 時間 有please为现在
  4. 常用
    • ved
    • by ving
    • will be ved
    • when before if


  • be + ving
    • The product development team for Herbeve Cosmetics is considering a package redesign to try to incease sales.
  • before:
    • S + 情态动词(modal verb) + V + before + 一般现在时
  • If S + had + Vpp/ed, S + would/could + have Vpp/ed
    • Ms. Choi would have been at the keynote address if her train had arrived on time.
  • If + 一般现在时, 未来简单式
    • Unless (Only if) the shipment of tiles arrives early, work on the lobby floor will commence after the holiday.



  • 情感
  • 后面接一个人
  • 介词 + ving

plans on ving

  • The company plans on reimbursing the salespeople for the expenses they incurred while attending the conference.

on / uopn ving

  • Upon receiving the engineering award, Ms. Kwon made a point of thanking longtime mentors.

by ving

  • South Regent Aviation is adopting measures to reduce fuel expenses by lightening cargo loads.
  • By opening offices in London, Paris, and Madrid, Sedgehill Ltd. has continued its growth markets overseas.


  • Please review the projected sales figures in the spreadsheets that are attached to the e-mail.

19Q123: need to fill in a verb in v-ing form and conjugate it in the passive form based on the meaning of the sentence.

  • Please save spreadsheets periodically when updating them to prevent data from being lost.


  • Poet Uoshino Nagao will read from her latest published collection at Argyle Library on Friday.

18Q128:Before the blank is the preposition “upon” and after the nlank is “the”, so right at this blnk position needs to fill in a v-ing.

  • Researchers must sign in at the visitor registration table upon entering the Briston Literary Archive.

17Q118: need an adjective to modify the noun. In the absence of a root adjective, we will consider choosing v-ing if has an active meaning, v-ed if it has a passive meaning.

  • Cranford Culinary Academy offers 35 different classes for aspiring chefs.

17Q127: need an adjective to modify the noun. In the absence of a root adjective, we will consider choosing v-ing if has an active meaning, v-ed if it has a passive meaning.

  • Tomorrow morning, both escalators in the store will be turned off periodically in order to perform required maintenance.

12Q129: In the absence of a root adjective, we will consider choosing v-ing if has an active meaning, v-ed if it has a passive meaning.

  • The Tonsin Writers League is a reputable orgganization with highly accomplished members.

11Q114: It is necessary to choose an adjective with a passive meaning.

  • The proposed initiative aims to provide publilc transportation for commuters living in the outer suburbs.


16Q117: Based on “yesterday” time sign

  • Mr.s Khana made a phone call yesterday during which he apologized for the delay in the shipment of the clothing order.

v + s or v


17Q101: Mr. Sokolov wrote a positive review of his stay at the Olana Hotel.

Ref: 英文文法的最基本規則

when vs while


未来式 + when / while + 现在式:(after when the future becomes present)

  • The lecture will focus on the country’s struggle for independence when he gives his talk.
  • 14Q107: Mr.s Jones will assist Ms. Cheng’s clients while she is on a business trip to Hong Kong.

when + ving(when是连接词,省略同样主语,后面可以接ving / vpp)

  • Remember to check to spelling of Mr. Kamashi’s name when revising the document.
  • When interacting with shoppers, clerks should deal with them in a pleasant manner.
  • (12Q125) When recently polled, residents of Mill Creek Park said that street disrepair is the issue that concerns them most.



while表示同等动作,或表示”虽然”(while is used for two actions taking place in parallel, or is also used to mean “although”)

  • While the Nolan Credit Union parking area is now open to the public, a sectionhas been reserved for credit union employees.


  • 哪一个 which one ← 只有这种用法后面可以接名词,其他全部后面都是接动词
  • 关系代名词:
    • 有逗号:非限定用法
    • 无逗号:限定用法
  • 关系代名词无逗号省略条件:
    • 具有两个完整的句子
    • 前面无逗号或介系词
    • 當看到一個名詞的後面突然冒出主詞+動詞的組合時,其實就要反應有可能是關係代名詞省略的情況
  • 关系代名词无逗号后面动词形式:
    • 后面句子有be:省略be,动词维持原样
    • 后面句子没有be:动词改成现在分词

which 逗号用法


  1. 关系代名词(有逗号,非限定用法):n + , + which + 描述前面整个句子
    • He showed me round the town, which was very kind of him
  2. 关系代名词(无逗号,限定用法):n + which + 描述前面的名词事物
    • The museum which we visited yesterday is the biggest in the city.

Ref: 【which 用法】一次搞懂英文「which」用法跟中文意思 | 全民學英文

which 省略用法




  • Flu season is here, so take advantaage of the free flu shots (which are being offered -> begin offered) in the lobby.


  • MBR Global Marketing has signed several new clinet contracts (which total -> totaling) 12 million pounds in annual revenue.


  • 16Q125: whose
  • 20Q125:whose not which
  • 14Q115: if
  • 12Q105: if
  • 11Q130: had


will vs will be